November 20: Revenge of the Coalition


Written by Matthew Mendez, Journalist

November 20. 1815 C.E. Following the defeat and final abdication of Napoleon Bonaparte, the Second Treaty of Paris is signed. Signed by the revived French Kingdom and the seven Coalition powers; Austria, Great Britain, Prussia and Russia, the terms imposed by France’s former enemies proved harsh. Due to the havoc wrecked by Napoleon across mainland Europe, France was forced to pay 700 million francs in indemnities as well as additional payments to fund the construction of fortifications in Coalition countries, the nations whom opposed Napoleon and his imperial ambitions. The country’s borders were also greatly reduced, with the majority of Napoleon’s conquered territories handed over to their previous owners. France also became subject to occupation by Coalition forces, having to also pay for the cost of maintaining the foreign occupiers. Although France would eventually recover from such strenuous demands, the French people would never again come to dominate continental Europe as they had done under the Napoleonic period.


Photo credits to Seth Knoop